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The research and development writings say that the primary advantage of the conical monopole is the broadband or wide pass-band characteristics of the antenna. The length and angle of the cone determine the operating impedance of the device. The geometric median diameter of the cone helps determine the bandwidth. These antennas are used primarily for multiple frequency shortwave broadcast and military spread spectrum data transmission where the object of the communications path is reception over the horizon (sky wave propagation). There have been several conical antenna designs over the years. Amateur Radio has used conical antennas for vhf and uhf for decades, as well as 10 through 20 meter SSB. Inverted conical antennas also exhibit increased efficiencies when designed for special service, supposedly due to the increase in radiation resistance. This helps to overcome, only slightly, ground losses. The inverted conical monopole still requires some kind of matched ground radial system to work properly.