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Ermi, thanks for the explanation, but I’ve got a few more questions as a result.
The main one is this: has anyone ever made measurements to confirm the NEC simulation? Do they in fact verify that most of the radiation is at high angles and that there is almost none on the horizon? I have felt for a long time that this might be one of the reasons that Part 15 stations do not get out as well as would be expected, since in most cases that one can think of, your listeners would be near the ground.
On the other hand, there must be some radiation at ground level, or you wouldn’t hear anything. I’m wondering if it isn’t so much that most of the radiation goes out at a high angle, as the fact that a big “bite” of the signal is missing at zero degrees. I’d appreciate your thoughts on that.
No matter how much radiation occurs at high angles, it’s nowhere near enough for a Part 15 station to produce a sky wave since the D layer is 60 miles high. You’re lucky to have a usable signal at 1 mile.